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Science Page 


          This page will give you information about the latest technologies in the field of sciences. Science has reached a great height with the new applications involving quantum mechanics. It sometimes looks that everything's got saturated in the field of science but that isn't the case. I will try to update this page with the latest advancements in science that I can find. I will be very happy if you could share your thoughts upon any topic. This page will contain information about various sciences like astrophysics, metaphysics, etc. I hope you will enjoy going through this page.


       This is a very important branch of science for research. Scientists are really finding it interesting in inventing new things related to this field. It's actually a combination of several sciences together. for example a machine which detects a person by scanning the hand or eyes etc. uses the help of computers and at the same time the help of biology. This will revolutionize the way we look at things now.

        What made us to go for using biometric devices. Well the answer for this is technology. You must be wondering how technology is responsible for this. The reason for this, well technology is getting better day by day so are the cheaters, robbers, etc getting better tools to fool present day devices in getting fake credit cards and using them to get money which does not belong to them. This has prompted the world to go for new technologies in identifying those intelligent immoral cheaters. 

What is Biometrics ? 

The strict definition of biometrics is the science that involves the statistical analysis of biological characteristics. However, the computer industry has adopted the word and changed its meaning and now 'biometrics' means to most people the verification of peoples' identities using their unique characteristics. One of the big benefits of using biometrics as a verification tool is the inherent uniqueness of a person’s make-up. Some of examples of biometrics using physical technology are: retina or iris scans, face scans, and most commonly finger or hand prints. Examples of behavioral biometrics are voice recognition and handwritten signatures, and dynamic signatures (keystroke dynamics).

An important advantage of biometrics lies in the fact that physical or behavioral traits cannot be transferred to other individuals, nor can they be forgotten.

Uses for Biometric Technology

This is  only a brief introduction about biometrics. If you want to know more about this you can mail me.

The various kinds of methods we have are :

You will see reference to a number of biometrics, some of which are rather impractical even if technically interesting. The ‘popular’ biometrics seem to gravitate at present around the following methodologies. 

Fingerprint verification.

There are a variety of approaches to fingerprint verification. Some of them try to emulate the traditional police method of matching minutiae, others are straight pattern matching devices, and some adopt a unique approach all of their own, including moiré fringe patterns and ultrasonic. Some of them can detect when a live finger is presented, some cannot. There is a greater variety of fingerprint devices available than any other biometric at present.

Potentially capable of good accuracy (low instances of false acceptance) fingerprint devices can also suffer from usage errors among insufficiently disciplined users (higher instances of false rejection) such as might be the case with large user bases. One must also consider the transducer / user interface and how this would be affected by large scale usage in a variety of environments. Fingerprint verification may be a good choice for in house systems where adequate explanation and training can be provided to users and where the system is operated within a controlled environment. It is not surprising that the workstation access application area seems to be based almost exclusively around fingerprints, due to the relatively low cost, small size (easily integrated into keyboards) and ease of integration.

Hand geometry.

As the name suggests, hand geometry is concerned with measuring the physical characteristics of the users hand and fingers, from a three dimensional perspective in the case of the leading product. One of the most established methodologies, hand geometry offers a good balance of performance characteristics and is relatively easy to use. This methodology may be suitable where we have larger user bases or users who may access the system infrequently and may therefore be less disciplined in their approach to the system. Accuracy can be very high if desired, whilst flexible performance tuning and configuration can accommodate a wide range of applications. Hand geometry readers are deployed in a wide range of scenarios, including time and attendance recording where they have proved extremely popular. Ease of integration into other systems and processes, coupled to ease of use makes hand geometry an obvious first step for many biometric projects.

Voice verification.

A potentially interesting technique bearing in mind how much voice communication takes place with regard to everyday business transactions. Some designs have concentrated on wall mounted readers whilst others have sought to integrate voice verification into conventional telephone handsets. Whilst there have been a number of voice verification products introduced to the market, many of them have suffered in practice due to the variability of both transducers and local acoustics. In addition, the enrolment procedure has often been more complicated than with other biometrics leading to the perception of voice verification as unfriendly in some quarters. However, much work has been and continues to be undertaken in this context and it will be interesting to monitor progress accordingly.

Retinal scanning.

An established technology where the unique patterns of the retina are scanned by a low intensity light source via an optical coupler. Retinal scanning has proved to be quite accurate in use but does require the user to look into a receptacle and focus on a given point. This is not particularly convenient if you are a spectacle wearer or have concerns about intimate contact with the reading device. For these reasons retinal scanning has a few user acceptance problems although the technology itself can work well. The leading product underwent a redesign in the mid nineties, providing enhanced connectivity and an improved user interface, however this is still a relatively marginal biometric technology.

Iris scanning.

Iris scanning is undoubtedly the less intrusive of the eye related biometrics. It utilizes a fairly conventional ccd camera element and requires no intimate contact between user and reader. In addition it has the potential for higher than average template matching performance. As a technology it has attracted the attention of various third party integrators and one would expect to see additional products launched in due course as a result. It has been demonstrated to work with spectacles in place and with a variety of ethnic groups and is one of the few devices which can work well in identification mode. Ease of use and system integration have not traditionally been strong points with the iris scanning devices, but we can expect to see improvements in these areas as new products are introduced.

Signature verification.

Signature verification enjoys a synergy with existing processes that other biometrics do not. People are used to signatures as a means of transaction related identity verification and would mostly see nothing unusual in extending this to encompass biometrics. Signature verification devices have proved to be reasonably accurate in operation and obviously lend themselves to applications where the signature is an accepted identifier. Curiously, there have been relatively few significant applications to date in comparison with other biometric methodologies. If your application fits, it is a technology worth considering, although signature verification vendors have tended to have a somewhat chequered history.

Facial recognition.

A technique which has attracted considerable interest and whose capabilities have often been misunderstood. Extravagant claims have sometimes been made for facial recognition devices which have been difficult if not impossible to substantiate in practice. It is one thing to match two static images (all that some systems actually do - not in fact biometrics at all), it is quite another to unobtrusively detect and verify the identity of an individual within a group (as some systems claim). It is easy to understand the attractiveness of facial recognition from the user perspective, but one needs to be realistic in ones expectations of the technology. To date, facial recognition systems have had limited success in practical applications. However, progress continues to be made in this area and it will be interesting to see how future implementations perform. If technical obstacles can be overcome, we may eventually see facial recognition become a primary biometric methodology.

There are other biometric methodologies including the use of scent, ear lobes and various other parameters. Whilst these may be technically interesting, they are not considered at this stage to be workable solutions in everyday applications. Those listed above represent the majority interest and would be a good starting place for you to consider within your biometric project. The sections of this paper dealing with performance issues and user psychology offer a further insight into the application of these devices.

Well there is lot more to know more about this. My intention was to provide you or rather give you an idea about what this technology is all about. 

Do visit this page again. My next topic will be quantum computers. This will be very interesting. I will trey to provide as much information as possible. I am doing an in depth study on this.